Shpaklevki happen glutinous, semioil, oil and varnish. It is a lot of recipes, best of them what is checked up, tested in practice, it was remembered, became habitual. It is possible to change concentration of structure, to reduce or increase quantity of this or that component, but every time is not recommended to resort to the new structure unfamiliar to the recipe.
To prepare 100г glutinous shpaklevki, it is necessary to take 60-70г liquid joiner's glue (diluted in 4-5 parts of water), 25-30г it is thin a ground chalk (the ordinary tooth-powder is good for these purposes) and 5г any drying oil. All well mix, fray the special tool - shpatelem, representing a wide metal rake. It can be made most of enough firm tree. To fray shpaklevku and to put it on small surfaces conveniently also a thin table knife.
Prepares shpaklevka on small sheet of plywood in the size, for example, 300x300 mm. From three parties of sheet it is possible to paste or beat carnations low sides that glue filled in in a chalk did not flow down, and the chalk was not sprayed at hashing.
Drying oil slows down drying glutinous shpaklevki, but raises its durability. Drying oil replacement with one-and-a-half or double quantity of liquid whitewash will give shpaklevke elasticity. If the structure has appeared too dense, badly sticks to a tree, it can be ground again, preliminary having added a glutinous solution or liquid whitewash. The thin layer glutinous shpaklevki dries up during 2ч.
The Structure oil shpaklevki differs from glutinous only more considerable maintenance of oils and paints at the expense of reduction of quantity of a glutinous solution. On 100г shpaklevki it is necessary to take 60-70г the sifted chalk, 10г liquid joiner's glue and 20-30г drying oils. For giving the structure bolshej plasticity can replace a drying oil part with whitewash, and desirable colour achieve the small additive of an oil paint. If the structure has appeared too dense, it fray with addition of a paint, drying oil or a glutinous solution. The thin layer shpaklevki dries up during 3-4ч at a room temperature.
Happens that at layer drawing shpaklevki under an edge shpatelja there are hardly appreciable firm particles, it izvest or sand which often accompany a chalk. Particles stir them to alignment shpaklevochnogo a layer. To warn this trouble, it is not necessary to use a chalk without preliminary and careful sifting. As a sieve the kapron fabric of which do stockings is suitable. In a tooth-powder of similar impregnations does not happen. .
After the layer shpaklevki completely will dry up, a product grind a fine-grained skin.
Repeated shpaklevka it is usually made by the same or more liquid structure. There is very simple way of quality check of preparation of a surface. At repeated shpaklevke in its structure add a little painting substance: for glutinous shpaklevki - a dry pigment, for oil - dissolved on drying oil. At drawing of the second layer, excellent on colouring from the first, roughnesses which remained on a surface will be visible. In the course of repeated polishing by a skin also it is possible to define, whether there were roughnesses: hollows will not be touched by a skin, them follows proshpaklevat once again.
Polishing of the first covering can be made up and down fibres, but the last - necessarily lengthways.
In structures shpaklevok add: sikkativy - for drying acceleration, the liquid soap promoting stronger adhesion shpaklevochnogo of a layer with wood, and also turpentine - a thinner of oils.
If half of chalk in shpaklevke to replace with small sawdust with addition of a paint of corresponding colour this structure it is possible to close up cracks in a floor. For a parquet floor the structure from equal parts of liquid glass (writing glue), a chalk and sawdust is better approaches. For check on colour prepare a small portion, allow to it to dry up, for sawdust will darken. If necessary add a paint of necessary colour. After drying the repaired places smooth out a chisel and a skin.