The Same important place in derevoobrabotke after pilenija occupies planing. To grind a piece of iron of a plane or a chisel is easier, rather than to dissolve and grind a saw. For this purpose it is necessary to have two bruska: one nazhdachnyj or coarse-grained sandy for the rough sharpening, the second - fine-grained oselok for editing, i.e. For removal from an edge of agnails. The width bruska should exceed a little width of a sharpened piece of iron, oselok can be narrow.
chisel Sharpening. the Chisel has skos to the cutting part named a facet, its corner in relation to a chisel plane can fluctuate from 20 to 40 °. The piece of iron with a smaller corner of sharpening cuts wood, especially firm breeds, but quickly tupitsja easier and more purely. In avoidance kroshenija edges at cross-section cutting of fibres of a tree (for example, using a chisel instead of a chisel) are expedient for sharpening a piece of iron at an angle more than 25-30 °.
At sharpening a chisel keep the right hand for the handle, and fingers of the left press a piece of iron to brusku all plane of a facet and rhythmical longitudinal movements drive on a plane bruska, the moistened water. Sharpening make until on the return smooth party of a piece of iron agnails are not formed, it is easy to feel them if to spend a finger across an edge. Periodically it is necessary to moisten with water and brusok and a piece of iron, washing off abrasive and metal parts. During sharpening the piece of iron should be kept under the same corner to a surface bruska. Usually, if the tool is not started, on this operation leaves only 4-5 mines (fig. 8).
Sharpening of a piece of iron on flat bruske:
1, 2 - it is correct; 3 - it is wrong on a round stone; 4 - after sharpening; 5 - after editing on oselke
The sharpening Geometry is checked by a wooden square. The edge of a piece of iron of a plane or a chisel should be to straight lines. It is supposed small (to 0,2-0,5 mm) an edge rounding off on the ends, but at all a hollow in the middle. A corner between a line of an edge and edges of a piece of iron of a straight line. Thus it is necessary to mean that some pieces of iron become a little narrowed on width to a tail part then a square alternately put from two parties. .
After sharpening on a facet the superficial scratches formed on metal by grains bruska are with the naked eye appreciable. Now a piece of iron it is necessary to direct, point, remove agnails. It becomes on oselke. Editing is made not longitudinal, but alternately circular and longitudinal movements of a piece of iron on the surface moistened with water oselka as follows.
At first three-four sliding circular motions the back party of a piece of iron on oselku, their surfaces should adjoin densely to each other, the editing corner will be zero. On oselke there are light scratches from agnails. In this case agnails do not grind off, and are only unbent towards a facet.
Then a piece of iron again moisten with water, overturn a facet downwards and do five-six cross-section sliding movements, as at sharpening. Pressing in both cases should be weak. Alternate editing repeat some times.
Now look at a facet under slanting rays of light, its surface becomes smooth, shining, scratches disappear. Spend a finger across an edge from two parties: considerably that agnails grind off. It is possible to consider editing finished when the edge on all length becomes smooth, with mirror shine, and agnails at a light touch will not be felt as a finger at all. On this operation usually happens enough 2-3 minutes
Sharpening and editing rubanochnyh and fuganochnyh pieces of iron. sharpening and editing rubanochnyh and fuganochnyh pieces of iron is similarly made.
The Great value has position of hands and fingers, it variously in the course of sharpening and editing. In the first case a piece of iron keep for a tail part the right palm, and two fingers of the left hand press a facet to brusku. In the second case when remove (unbend) agnails from the back party, a piece of iron slightly press to oselku four fingers of the left hand, and right only hold a tail part of a piece of iron of a plane or the chisel handle. .
Brusok and oselok in an operating time are badly kept on a workbench surface, they slide, fidget. This inconvenience is easy for eliminating, having put under brusok dense sheet of a wet paper or slices of thin rubber along the edges. It is possible to strengthen brusok in a vice, but thus it is easy to split it. It is better to fix brusok in wooden kolodke.
For this purpose take a tree piece on length on 40 60 mm more bruska, and on height and width - on 20 mm. Impose on it brusok or oselok, outline a pencil a contour on which by means of a sharp chisel make deepenings. On longitudinal lines make deep cuts. Across fibres wood to cut difficultly, it is necessary to hollow: put an edge of a chisel along cross-section risks and easily strike on the handle a hammer. It is more convenient to work as a wide chisel. Establish it strictly vertically. Then turn a chisel a facet from itself, establish at a small angle and easy blows of a hammer chop off wood (fig. 9). And so on all perimetre.
Sequence of operations (it is specified by figures) on vydalblivaniju deepenings (nests)
Depth of dredging at a thickness bruska 20-25 mm should make 7-8 mm. The bottom should be smoothed out, levelled it a sharp chisel that the formed sides were identical height. Now enclose brusok in kolodku, slightly moisten it. After the first use of a crack will fill kashitsa, formed at tool sharpening, brusok it will be strongly kept in kolodke. It is convenient for clamping in a vice, it is convenient to them to sharpen an axe, to correct a plait.
To grind rubanochnuju a piece of iron on bruske, it is necessary to make at least 100 movements. It is difficult to keep all this time it under one corner to a plane bruska.