More difficult on execution by kinds is the relief and sculptural carving. the First is subdivided depending on degree of height of the figures acting over a surface, into a bas-relief and higher - a high relief. These ways represent figures of animals more often, birds, etc. the Sculptural (round) carving differs from relief still bolshej camber of represented subjects and figures. On armrests of ancient armchairs and other products so cut out heads of lions, deer, horses, birds. In this case figures almost completely separate from a background and become a sculpture. .
The special tool is applied To these kinds of a carving: the semicircular and round chisels, the bent rasps, cutters with a profile cutting edge. Ordinary chisels are necessary for primary, rough processing with a direct or oblique edge, chisels, knifes lobzikovye saws.
Instead of a hammer it is more convenient to work kijankoj as the attention of the carver is concentrated to accuracy of cuts and having chopped off wood, instead of on blow on the chisel handle - a hammer with a narrow sole it is possible and to miss. The desktop should have height of 900-1000 mm, behind such table it is possible to work and sitting on a high stool (here just and the high chair-step-ladder is useful). .
For an exact and beautiful carving sharpening of cutters has Special value. The cutting part of a chisel should be ground at a small angle and well directed on oselke and a belt to mirror shine, as the razor. Then also wood cuts will be smooth, slightly shining. In the first experiences of a flat geometrical carving it is possible to manage only one tool - a cutting torch, peretochennym from a short chisel in width not less than 15 mm or made of nozhovochnogo cloths on metal like a shoe knife. The cutting torch handle becomes a squared shape, only on edges facets are formed at an obtuse angle. The tool with the round smooth handle is difficult for keeping precisely in a cutting direction.
Any piece of a board in the thickness not less than 10 mm, well dried up, without cracks, knots and mechanical damages, with a smooth surface can be the Material for a carving. Wide preparations are better for sticking together from several narrow bruskov one breed of a tree and with homogeneous structure. For the procarved carving finished with an opaque covering, wood of any breeds is suitable. .
Drawing of a through carving do on sheet of a white paper, and then through a carbon paper translate on a wooden surface. Small preparations can be marked for a geometrical carving at once on a surface, it concerns and a through carving of platbands and other products of architectural value. For repeating drawing it is expedient to make a cardboard or plywood template.
On one product it is possible to use different kinds of a carving, and also its combination to a burning out, cutting out and other ways of an ornament.
Different ways of cutting and the corresponding tool are applied To various kinds of a carving. But all is reduced removing from a preparation surface superfluous wood, to form by its cutting drawing and a background. The elementary, so-called trihedrally-vyemchataja a carving is carried out by a chisel or a knife in the following sequence. .
Begin with nakalyvanija. In a point of intersection of beams of a triangle a sharp tip of a knife deepen in wood on 2-4 mm. Thus at figure top there is an easy, hardly appreciable superficial cut depth in the tenth share of millimetre. Nakalyvanie repeat three times for each figure, beginning every time with the centre.
When nakalyvanie it is finished, start the second operation which is called as cutting. Its problem consists in cutting out and removing from a figure trihedral slices of wood. Turning preparation and inclining the tool in this or that party, directing an edge from the top sides of a triangle to the centre, gradually strengthening pressing, cut off triangles, forming the same forms dredging.
The Knife or a chisel hold strong clamped in a fist. A palm of the left hand preparation densely press to a table, and the right hand leans against a table or on a processed board. A cutting torch alternately incline that in one in other party, and preparation turn depending on a direction of fibres of wood. At trihedral-vyemchatoj to a carving cutting all time conduct or along wood fibres, or at an angle, but not towards to them. .
It is useful for Beginning carver to practise on execution of an openwork procarved carving (fig. 36). Thin plates can be a material, and from the tool rotation or a drill, melkozubaja nozhovka, a fret saw and a chisel be required. Begin with a marking and drawing drawing on a wooden surface. Then drill round apertures, do prosaws, surpluses of wood cut down a chisel. During time pilenija it is necessary to hold plate top with the left hand as it is possible more close to a saw cloth to prevent possible skoly. If all the same stratification has occurred, the cracked or absolutely jumped aside slice of wood can be pasted.
the Procarved carving. The elementary ornaments made with the help:
1 - saws; 2 - saws and chisels; 3 - saws, chisels and drills
It is necessary to try in the same drawing and a way zaova-lennoj carvings. In this case edges of patterns mow down at a small angle by means of a chisel, cutting conduct only in a direction of fibres. Prosaws and round apertures can be smoothed out a rasp, a skin, a chisel.
We do not give a practical advice by more difficult kinds of woodcarving as on this question special grants are let out many. The tool for woodcarving - the big rarity on counters of household shops. Usually profile chisels of the various sizes turn from old files. But in this case to the joiner not to do without the help of experts in metal working - toolmakers.