It is final process of finishing preparation. The most widespread is polishing by a skin. The industry lets out a skin on the paper and fabric bases covered with abrasive materials.
There are waterproof skins - for wet polishing. By kinds of abrasives distinguish skins glass, korundovye, silicon. .
To polishing of curvilinear surfaces apply a skin on a linen basis: it is more elastic, in comparison with the paper. Skins differ in the sizes and the form of grains, the most fine-grained have zero designations, are applied usually to metal polishing. Joiners use the skins having numbers from first and above. Acute-angled glass grains leave on wood, especially soft breeds, appreciable traces, at cross-section polishing such skin is applied only for rough obdirochnyh works when it is necessary to remove dirt traces, to exhaust, an old paint.
The First grinding make a coarse-grained skin, finish the most fine-grained. Grind along fibres. But if the product surface is made of wood of different density and these components have a different direction of fibres polishing across fibres is supposed for breeds bolshej density. .
For grinding 35 mm use wooden or pith kolodkami in the length to 120 mm, width to 60 mm and height. Kolodku it is necessary to make most, on their sale does not happen. It consists from wooden bruska which sole represents itself the correct plane which has been pasted over with a piece of felt, cloth, felt, rubber or other soft material (fig. 24). The top sides become oval by means of a saw, a fret saw, a rasp, a skin. That the palm of the right hand densely and conveniently fitted kolodku, it is possible to make corresponding deepenings on edges for fingers.
Grinding kolodka (cut):
1 - kolodka; 2 - metal; 3 - an overlay; 4 - a sole
The Length and width kolodki can be changed depending on the sizes of available sheets of a skin, but its height should be not less than 35 mm. If to reduce height bruska, let us assume, to 25 mm hand fingers will appear flush with a tool sole, begin to slide on a processed surface. And it is unsafe: splinters - a thing unpleasant.
At grinding considerable efforts that the skin densely adjoined to a processed surface are necessary, did not slide on it, and cut fibres. Oshkurit a plate edge easily, and on the big plane exceeding the sizes of a sole kolodki in 10-100 times, this work will demand the big physical pressure. Loading can be reduced by the right hand only in one way: to weight itself kolodku. .
To Make it it is easy. From above kolodki hollow out a nest in the sizes 80х40х30 mm. Fill in with its fused lead and when it will harden, top close up a wooden plate. That the metal ingot did not dangle in a nest, the formed cracks fill in with sealing wax, liquid glass or other hardening structure. The weight grinding kolodki will increase thus several times, begins to work easier.
Lead can be fused in a tin, at its pouring out in a nest wood slightly will smoke, but fire will not occur. To metal allow to cool down on air, at all without applying any cooling means. Lead will harden in some minutes. Instead of lead it is possible to use a piece of heavy metal on which sizes hollow out a nest in bruske.
Grinding kolodku it is better to make of two-three layers of wood of different breeds, as kolodku a plane: for practice, check of durability of a glutinous seam and it is simple for the sake of beauty of the tool.
Can happen that near at hand there will be no piece of a fine-grained skin, it it is possible to replace any, if two sheets poteret the friend about the friend that the largest grains of an abrasive have dropped out. Do not throw out the jammed skin: having lost the largest grains, it on some numbers becomes more thin and will be suitable for purer polishing. .
For many products which do not have the big smooth planes and not carrying special decorative loading, it is possible to consider a first coat unessential. In many cases instead of a first coat it is possible to cover wood with a thin layer of very liquid joiner's glue. After easy polishing by a fine-grained skin a product cover not with three and at all two, and one paint coat: it is enough for formation of a protective layer and some luster of it. But shpaklevkoj to neglect never follows.
But also the most careful continuous shpaklevka surfaces, even numerous with intermediate grinding by a fine-grained skin, hardly probable will eliminate all roughnesses. Therefore colouring is made two-three times with intermediate polishing before the put layers. To each paint coat allow to dry up during not less 24ч. .
For giving one layer of an oil varnish is put to an oil covering of stronger shine. The expense of a paint ready to the use on 1 m 2 makes surfaces for whitewash and ohry approximately 150г, for other paints - from 40 to 90г. Metal products paint in the same way. Only process of preparation of a surface is reduced to rust removal, and the paint is put in one layer.
Dealing with an oil paint, it is difficult to avoid such troubles, as stains on a floor or clothes. In "ря=хёъх" the joiner always there should be means of deducing of oil stains. These means are simple and accessible to everyone.
If paint drops have appeared on a skin wipe these places vegetable oil, stains will disappear completely, and the skin of boots, or gloves becomes softer, more elastic than a jacket. A fresh stain of a paint on a fabric moisten with pure turpentine, wipe gasoline. The dried up stains of a paint at first should be softened a butter or margarine, then turpentine or gasoline then to wipe a rag moistened in a 10 percent solution of liquid ammonia. Last operation carry out cautiously not to change fabric colouring. It is possible to replace liquid ammonia with kerosene but then the thing should be washed.
Fresh stains from wood pitch at first dissolve, moistening with acetone, gasoline or turpentine, and then delete, ironing a hot iron through the filtering paper (blotter) enclosed with of two parties of a fabric. Inveterate pitch stains preliminary soften any fat (fat, margarine).
If will conceive to paint the glazed frame, moisten glass with vinegar - the paint will not stick.