The Higher class of transparent furnish of a tree is polishing. It consists in giving to the top layer of a varnish covering of mirror shine and high mechanical durability by drawing on a surface of several hundreds and thousand the most thin layers of polish - spirit a solution of pitch of a phytogenesis.
Polish represents, as though diluted spirit varnish in which the maintenance of firm film-forming substance is less, than in a varnish. It is used for raspolirovki, levelings before the varnish coats put on a surface. The best is shellachnaja polish. .
Joiner's and finishing preparation of a polished surface for the varnish covering put on wood possessing almost metal durability, is absolutely transparent also all slightest defects on a surface should be irreproachable become appreciable. Indoors, where this work is carried out, the constant temperature and humidity of air should be supported, the dust and a draught are inadmissible.
Polishing is carried out more often in four stages and proceeds, including the endurance time, two-three weeks, and for reception of a smooth surface what it is possible to see on some musical instruments, months are required. Polish products only with tampons.
Tampons are applied for vtiranija wax mastic or polish during a time of wood, varnishing, polishing and raspolirovki. So wax mastic rub during a time of wood a tampon representing a ball, curtailed of felt and hardly wrapped up by cloth. .
To varnishing apply the tampons which have been wrapped up by a linen matter, many other fabrics leave on surface of a fibre which at work with quickly drying up spirit varnishes stick to a surface and spoil its appearance. Napolniteljami tampons cotton wool and other soft materials can serve.
For polishing the tampons which have been wrapped up by a piece of a soft linen fabric is better approach. A ball do of woollen jersey. The fabric ends from above pull together, braid and fasten to the help of a rubber plait, a metal ring or otherwise. But fastenings for any tampon it should be obligatory demountable that it was possible to fill with its new portion of a varnish quickly.
For polishing one is required not, and, at least, three tampons. Tampons remain badly. The varnish which has remained in them, quickly dries up. But within a month-two the tampons which were in the use, can remain in glass, densely closed bank, without air easy approach. With a view of an economical expenditure of varnishes and other finishing materials, it is not necessary to do the big tampons, for many works there will be sufficient a ball in diameter of 25-30 mm. .
The Processed product establish in horizontal position. To fill a tampon with polish, (stiranoe the cloth, flax) open the top fabric, and the sphere from a wool or cotton wool is moistened from outside with soles so that the structure was completely absorbed. At easy dab on a surface of a tree it should leave a tampon a wide strip (las) a thin varnish coat, polish, which through 3-4сек. Dries up. If the varnish turns out fat and long does not dry up, and on it small vials of air are appreciable, means, in a tampon surplus of polish, to work as it it is impossible.
Polish put circular and zigzag returnable movements (fig. 31).
the Scheme of movement of a tampon:
1 - at priming; 2 - at the first polishing; 3 - the second polishing; 4 - final polishing
Left a tampon lasy should block one another partially. In the same place it is necessary to pass no more than two-three times. The first polishing name priming. In this process about hundred layers of polish are put on a surface. Depending on the sizes of a product it is necessary to choose a tampon of such size and to calculate movement drawing so that to start to put the second layer not earlier than in a minute-two after the beginning of the first. Thus, priming will proceed the little more than hour.
Without preliminary training estimation not to manage, to especially beginning joiner. It is necessary to fulfil well receptions of movement with a dry tampon before to fill with its polish.
For the first polishing apply more dense structure with the maintenance of pitch to 12%, to last, the fourth, - 5-7%. In sale polish with the 10 percent maintenance of pitch usually arrives. If to pour in bank with a wide throat it is a little polish and to take to bank opened the spirit part will evaporate also concentration of pitch will increase. Rate of movement by a tampon also neodinakov for all four stages. At gruntovamii it is slowed down, for the second and third polishing amplifies. The fastest movements make last polishing when the tampon describes on an eight surface. .
At the very beginning of polishing a tampon drive on a surface easy sliding movements. As easily the tampon should and slide off, when figured pass on all surface is finished. No rectilinear passes along fibres, across are supposed. Lasy are imposed by continuous movements. Sharp overlaying of a tampon as well as the sudden separation in the middle, is caused by so-called burns of a varnish covering: rough stains which are formed as a result of dissolution before the put and already hardened film.
And the problem consists in to dissolving a minute ago made lasa, and to put on it the second, the third, the tenth...
Degree of pressing a tampon Changes also. In the beginning of each operation it is more considerable, and by the end decreases. In the end of the third or fourth polishing pressing should be absolutely weak, the tampon as though flies, hardly touching a surface with a sole, on it the last lay down lasy - the most thin layers of polish.
Pressing a tampon strengthen also in process of the expense of its contents. When it becomes almost dry and but reserves appreciable traces, an internal sphere again humidify with polish. (The area 25 from m 2 ) is enough for tampons of the average sizes 12-15 g polish. .
As it was already told, considerably facilitates sliding of a tampon the oil which two-three drops periodically put on its sole. However to abuse it does not follow for that simple reason that, covering one, already dried up varnish coat, oil interferes with adhesion to its (coupling) with a put layer of polish. Therefore in first two passes at all stages of polishing oil try to do without.
After the first, priming, polishing long enough drying follows. Under production conditions norms provide a three-day mode of endurance before polishing. But considering that at insufficient experience in first coat process too fat varnish coat can be put, it is better to extend duration of drying. Anyway it is necessary to remember that in defects of polishing results not increase in terms of endurance, and its reduction.