The Basic tool for planing is the plane with a double piece of iron, it can remain long time a unique plane in a workshop of the house joiner, its design tested by many generations of joiners is so perfect. The plane with wooden kolodkoj is more preferable metal, work with which demands special skills.
The Plane (fig. 10) consists from rectangular kolodki, is better, if it is stuck together from two-three plates of wood of different breeds for deformation prevention kolodki, especially its soles. Wood of a hornbeam, an ash-tree, a maple, a birch, a beech is most suitable. In the centre kolodki the through aperture (letok) for a piece of iron consisting of three details becomes: a cutter (the bottom piece of iron), gorbatika (top) and the short screw which both pieces of iron in certain position fasten. For purer planing gorbatik establish so that it the bottom edge did not reach a cutter edge on 1,5-2 mm, but densely adjoined in this place to the bottom piece of iron.
1 - kolodka three-layer; 2 - letok; 3 - the bottom piece of iron; 4 - gorbatik; 5 - the screw; 7 - a mouth; 8 - a small horn; 9 - a lug; 10 - inserts
If between pieces of iron at viewing on light the backlash it should be eliminated by edge undermining gorbatika a file or on flat bruske is swept up. Unique appointment gorbatika - to crack a shaving as it is possible more close to a sole of a plane and to direct it upwards on letku.
With distance increase between edges of pieces of iron to plane begins easier, work goes faster, the cutter removes thicker shaving, turning thus to an unary plane. But thus it is difficult to receive a smooth surface, especially on a material with knots and other defects. .
The Double piece of iron is kept in letke wooden klinkom from enough steady against blows by a tree hammer. Letok it is narrowed from top to bottom and forms in a sole an aperture (mouth) in width of 6-10 mm. The already the mouth, the is purer planing. The increase in its width leads to what to plane begins easier, the shaving does not jam in letke, but a pure surface on a processed detail to receive more difficultly.
For deduction of a plane by the left hand the small horn serves, the right palm at planing rests against a back part kolodki and lugs.
The plane Sole becomes from the most dense wood well resisting to wear process at sliding. During planing of rough surfaces, and zadorinami the greatest wear process of a sole occurs to knots in two places: in a forward part and before a cutter edge. Here are possible even skoly sole wood. When deterioration only was outlined, in these places cut and krepjat on glue thin plates from wood of firm breeds. To inserts of such plates resort and when it is necessary to narrow width of a mouth.
At considerable deterioration of a sole it level on the big piece of an emery paper or by planing by other plane (it is better fugankom). If thus it is necessary to remove too thick layer (it is admissible, 5 mm) the sole can be increased, strongly having pasted a plate from firm wood then it is possible to restore and width of a mouth. .
In all planes and fugankah the edge of pieces of iron acts over a sole plane on 0,1-1 mm. The thickness of a shaving besides depends on the size of a ledge, and means, and cleanliness of planing. To raise a cutter and to reduce a ledge, slightly strike a hammer by a back part kolodki (not on a lug!), paternal the clamping effort klinka weakens, it can be taken out absolutely. Having established a piece of iron in the necessary position, it again clamp in letke a wooden wedge. To lower a cutter, a hammer of very poorly one-two time strike at first by the top part of a piece of iron, and then on klinku. The size of a ledge of a cutter is established by practical consideration, on a thickness of a shaving. At some skills the joiner from the first establishes and fixes a piece of iron in the necessary position. For this purpose it is necessary to turn a plane and to look along a sole: the ledge size will be appreciable by a cutting edge of a piece of iron shining in a gleam.
Kolodku of a plane in the disassembled kind, without pieces of iron and klinka, usually impregnate with the warmed-up drying oil or other vegetable oil, rub with wax, cover with a transparent varnish that improves sole sliding. At planing. Planes never paint an oil paint for it is non-uniformly erased also appearance of the tool spoils.
It is necessary to Plane usually all preparations irrespective of, they moved out earlier or not. If to take a plate, strogannuju industrially by the car it is easy to notice with the naked eye on its surface traces from the knifes planted on a round shaft elektrofuganka . If a plate earlier processed a manual plane from time it could warp or become rough from non-uniform usyhanija wood fibres.
The House joiner often uses the wood which was in the use. In all cases before planing it is necessary to examine a preparation surface to be convinced, whether there are no on it acting nails, screws, metal paper clips. The surface should be cleared of traces to exhaust, sand, a paint. Under a dust layer and a dirt can appear nails. .
The Surface after planing should be not only pure, but also equal. Cleanliness is reached by correct sharpening and installation of a piece of iron, and also planing in a direction of fibres, not "яЁю=шт °хЁё=ш". But to receive an equal surface it is possible, only having some operational experience a plane.
Put on just planed plane bruska a metal ruler (wooden require check) and look, whether there are no gleams on the ends bruska. If they are, it is result only that you incorrectly held a plane.
In the planing beginning, since that moment when the cutter yet has not concerned wood and until the plane sole on three quarters of length will not appear on a processed surface bruska, a plane press the left hand, holding for a small horn, and right only push forward. Then on kolodku press both hands, and in the end of planing when the small horn as though will hang in mid-air, effort of the left hand remove also pressing it is carried out only by the right hand, left, using a small horn, only stretch a plane forward. .
Correctness of planing long bruskov is checked approximately. Correctness of planing of wider plate can be checked up also approximately, and also by means of two reek in the length 150-200 mm. A plate put the planed party upwards on a table, and rejki establish on the ends. If the plane is not warped at processing by a plane, rejki will be parallel each other. Otherwise towering edges of a plate it is necessary podstrogat (fig. 11).
Receptions of check of correctness of planing:
1 - plasti by means of two reek; 2 - edges a ruler
Brusok plane since that surface which will be obverse. But before it it is necessary to look narrowly at knots, round them backlashes, especially are always formed if the thick shaving acts in film. To receive a pure surface on knotty wood, it is necessary to reduce a ledge of a cutting edge of a piece of iron to minimum, in this case the shaving becomes almost transparent on light. .
If it is necessary sostrogat a thick layer of wood, more than millimetre expediently sharp chisel to cut down a knot on this depth, it is possible and to soften its blows of a hammer. Then the plane piece of iron not so will quickly become blunted.
On a plane which should become further a basis for a label of decorative plywood or incrustation, knots should be cut down necessarily, and on their place to paste wooden inserts. It becomes as follows. From wood of identical breed cut square plates of such size that they completely closed a knot, the thickness can make 5-10 mm. Then this preparation is imposed on a knot and outlined on perimetre by sharply ground pencil or shilom. Deepening is cut down by a chisel and the plate is inserted into it on glue.
K.E.Tsiolkovsky posesses idea to equip a plane directing that vystragivat a plate on the set thickness without a preliminary marking, doing without special rejsmusovogo the machine tool (fig. 12).
1 - directing a surface gauge; 2 - vystragivaemaja preparation