To the Tree, as well as any live organism, defects, congenital and got are peculiar, it is subject to various diseases. Names of defects with the characteristic are given for business wood of various breeds and of different function: applied in building, furniture manufacture, in the cellulose, paper and plywood industry, in other branches of a national economy. .
The Most widespread and serious defects of wood leading to its rejection, the following is: the cracks arising in the growing tree during strong frosts, and also in wood in the course of its artificial drying; the knots complicating machining of a tree and reducing durability pilomateriala. The abundance of knots lowers a wood rating. Wormholes, are damages which are put to wood by the insects making in it courses. Distinction of depth and the form the decay caused by harmful ability to live in a body of a tree or in wood of the lowest plants - fungi. Abnormalities of the form of a trunk and a wood structure - the defect rather extended, and not giving in to the exact description for there are no two absolutely identical trees. The nature is generous, a variety of kinds of plants and animals in general is inherent in it. Therefore happens difficultly to define, on what more all is suitable the given piece of wood. .
Really, with knots simply: the admissible norm - on one board three knots if four and more, it is rejected, is considered unsuitable for building. And how to be with so-called kososlojnostju and svilevat tostju, a wavy or confused interlacing of fibres? Geometrically absolutely correct annual rings in the nature of a live tree does not exist, two fibres going along a trunk, it would seem parallel, will necessarily wag aside and will be crossed, if their lines to continue in space. The bent trunk of a pine is unsuitable for a mast of a sailing vessel, not without reason ship name a grove where multimeter pines stand directly, as candles.
But there are trees, kososlojnost and svilevatost which wood at all are not defect. For example, the trunk of the Karelian birch so rough, bent, bugorchatyj, what even short, in metre in length, its piece does not answer the formula "эюЁьрыіэющ forms ё=тюы". And if to saw it on length on a cut such mess of fibres will open that it is difficult to define one sight where one fibre begins with what it is crossed and in what place terminates. And after all wood of the Karelian birch is the most valuable finishing material at furniture manufacturing.
Who did not see in wood on trunks of adult trees from a South side of outgrowths of the uncertain form, on northern and East sides of outgrowths does not happen almost. Grown into a bark of a tree and covered with a bark of picturesque drawing, wavy, twisting, intertwining lines of fibres are distinctly allocated on a white-trunked birch. Outgrowths - the phenomenon painful only for a growing tree, they essentially do not influence quality of wood of a trunk, their accurate cutting for a plant is painless. .
But these outgrowths (kapy) give to the joiner a finishing material of unique drawing and a colouring. Are especially appreciated nut kapy with their freakish interlacings of year layers of different width and colouring, with bright twisting lines of fibres along a trunk. Wood of a nut tree, especially southern, Caucasian, in itself is valuable as a finishing material. Its feature in colour fibres: from very light to dark brown shades, And flows on a nut tree - it as though a clot of all of the most beautiful and valuable that is created by the nature of this plant. Kapy on adult trees reach 200см in diameter, weight from above 1,5т (wood kapov, as well as all wood of the Karelian birch, is estimated on weight, and divided into thin plates of decorative plywood - in square metres and decimeters).
It is beautiful kap an alder with reddish outflow of fibres. Outgrowths meet on the majority of breeds of trees. .
From firm kapovoj wood produce different ornaments: brooches, kulony, a beads. They take a place on counters of jeweller shops near to jewels and products from silver.
On lesosekah trees cut at level 20-40см from an earth surface. But just the bottom part of a trunk (komel), adjoining on the main roots of a plant, represents the greatest value as raw materials for finishing materials. At cutting of wood from this part of a trunk, from a stub receive sheets of plywood with the most beautiful drawing. At preparation of finishing wood komel release from an earth layer, bare roots and in this place saw. .
In the same purposes use the forks formed in places of a branching of a tree trunk where fibres in the course of growth form the bound patterns which name reabrupt.
Now about decay. Many breeds of trees amazed with fungoid diseases, change colour of wood though mechanical properties usually remain if rotting has not gone too far. Fibres of wood of a pine and an aspen get grey-dark blue colouring, in art panels this natural drawing is used for the image of the quiet sea or the sky in rainy weather.
At last, about knots. Plywood sheets on which there are the small strong knots allocated bright and always with more dark colouring, look narjadnee, more beautifully. Original drawing of fibres is formed round each knot.